Health Studies Collegium, USA
Keynote: Predictive biomarkers: Comprehensive clinical nutrition
Russell Jaffe received his BS, MD and Ph.D from the Boston University School of Medicine in 1972 and residency in clinical chemistry at the National Institutes of Health (1973 – 1976). He is board certified in Clinical and Chemical Pathology and has considerable expertise in Traditional Chinese Medicine, acupuncture, active meditation, homeopathy, and manipulative arts. He started the Health Studies Collegium, a think tank that focuses on sustainable solutions to global health needs and is the Lab Director of ELISA/ACT Biotechnologies that offers the only lymphocyte response assay for detecting delayed hypersensitivities and is CEO of PERQUEIntegrative Health, a company that offers the world premier nutraceuticals and scientifically proven, integrative health solutions speeding the transition from sick care to healthful caring.
Treatment outcomes based on symptoms suppressed are more costly and less effective than those based on promoting the causes of good health and avoiding the consequences of ill health. Beginning with the fundamentals the focus of this presentation will be around 8 validated functional predictive biomarker tests. The emphasis on these tests brings out the importance attached to physiology (fundamentalto traditional healing) incharting out the course of a healthy life now and in the future; pillars of a personalized, evidence based practice today.
Modern laboratory medicine relies on usual values rather than goal values using reference ranges based on statistics, in turn based on only 50-100 specimens. On the other hand “least risk, most gain” goal values for each test can be directly translated into quality years of life “conserved” or “at risk”.
This is the next big step in interpretive lab medicine and includes the following tests:
HgbA1c, hsCRP, homocysteine, LRA by ELISA/ACT, Omegar 3 index, 8 oxoguanine and 1st morning urine pH.
Academia Sinica, Taiwan
Keynote: Multi-facet immune-modifying activities of specific phytochemicals from medicinal herbs
Dr. Ning-Sun Yang is a Distinguished Research Fellow and (Distinguished) Professor of Academia Sinica and the associated universities in Taipei, Taiwan. Dr. Yang received his Ph.D. in biochemical genetics at MSU, USA. His major research interests include gene-based cancer vaccines, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer phytochemicals, and functional genomics studies of dendritic cells. He initiated and helped the development of gene gun technology and pioneered its application to plant genetic engineering, mammalian gene transfer, DNA vaccines and gene therapy approaches. After thirty years of a research career in USA, Dr. Yang went back to Taiwan and established the Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center in Academia Sinica, Taipei, which is now recognized for medicinal and crop plant research. He was elected as a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS, USA). He has published close to 140 research papers, and obtained 14 USA patents.
Recent studies showed that a spectrum of innate immune responses, various immune cell types and their cross-talks, and the associated inflammatory activities are involved with many different types of diseases. These findings strongly suggest that, by modulating specific immune cell responses or appropriately suppressing defined inflammatory activities of targeted diseases, we may design new approaches for therapy or treatment of certain inflammatory and chronic diseases, e.g., colitis, dermatitis, IBD and some cancers. Interesting, it’s well known and appreciated that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), especially some commonly used medicinal herbs, claimed with functional specificity (e, g., anti-dermatitis promote tissue-wound healing), and routinely used historically for hundreds to thousands of years, have been established for their “strong anti-inflammatory” activities toward specific organ targets.
With the observations and understandings, my laboratory has investigated a group of phytoextracts or the derived pure phytochemicals from specific TCM plants, and evaluated their bioactivities/effects, in vitro and in vivo, on dendritic cells, MDSCs, Tregs and other immune cell types in mouse models of skin inflammation, colitis and tumor metastasis systems. Experimentally, we employed functional genomics, proteomics, transgenic promoter analysis, cytokine/chemokine profiling, micro RNA array and signaling pathway analysis systems in cross-examination studies. Results and findings, published in eight key papers during the past five years will be discussed and projected for future research directions.
The key lesson we learned from these studies and studies: Highly specific cellular, molecular and signaling pathway effect on mouse and human dendritic cells, tumor stromal cells, skin tissue cells can be obtained by specific phytochemicals from TCM, contributing to potent inflammatory-modulatory activities in test animals of disease models.
Medical University of Graz, Austria
Keynote: High-tech Acupuncture and integrative medicine
Head of the Research Unit for Complementary and Integrative Laser Medicine, of the Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, and of the TCM Research Center Graz at the Medical University of Graz, Doctor of technical and Doctor of medical sciences, international lectures, about 600 scientific publications (180 SCI/pubmed listed), author and/or editor of eleven books, currently editor-in-chief and/or member of the editorial board of more than 30 international scientific journals (e.g. Editor-in-chief of the Internet Journal of Alternative Medicine (IJAM), Associate Editor for Medical Acupuncture, Associate Editor of the Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies (JAMS), editor, lead guest editor and guest editor of Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM), Associate Editor of BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Editor-in-Chief of Medicines and of Integrative Medicine International). Prof. Litscher is University Professor at the Medical University of Graz, and Visiting Professor at seven renowned institutions and universities in Asia. In addition, he is Initiator and Chairman of the Annual World Congress of High-Tech Acupuncture and Integrative Medicine which will take place for the second time in China in May 2015. He is also President of ISLA transcontinental (International Society for Medical Laser Applications.
All over the world, basic research on high-tech acupuncture and integrative laser medicine has been very successfully performed over the last decades, using a broad spectrum of innovative biomedical engineering methods. One of the main present and future goals is to combine basic research on high-tech acupuncture with necessary further experimental and clinical pilot studies for the first time. Acupuncture has been used for medical treatment for thousands of years. Using electro-acupuncture, needle or laser needle stimulation and modern biomedical techniques, it was possible for the first time to quantify changes in biological activities caused by acupuncture. This lecture focuses on the latest innovative aspects that underline the further enhancement and development of high-tech acupuncture. Special emphasis is given to new acupuncture innovations, e.g. teleacupuncture, laser acupuncture, and laser therapy in animal experimental and human clinical studies. Recent investigations concerning bioengineering assessment and modernization of acupuncture based on innovative technology are presented.
Traditional Chinese Medicine
Adrian Angel Inchauspe
Title: Is traditional chinese medicine definitely an exact science? Comparison between the oriental five elements theory and euclid regular polyhedrons’ postulates
Adrian Angel Inchauspe, medical doctor graduated from Medical Sciences , National University of La Plata in 1986, is current surgery professor of quoted School of Medicine. He worked as surgeon for “Dr. Rodolfo Rossi” Hospital in LaPLata and “Dr. Ignacio Pirovano” Hospital in Buenos Aires. Currently he assists as member of the Investigation Department in “Dr. Alejandro Korn “Hospital , La Plata. Scholarship in Germany after his surgical residency in 1991, was certified in laproscopic surgery in Aachen and Tubingen Universities. Graduate in Tele surgery Louis Pasteur University - Strasbourg - was chosen for the Argentina National Invention Award in 1998. Since 2005, Dr. Inchaus preserves as a teacher in the Argentina Acupuncture Society; and as session chairman of several International Drug Discovery Science and Technology Congress .Editorial member and reviewer of renowned journals, he has been searching about Yong quan resuscitation since 27 years.
Euclid was one of the greatest mathematicians of Ancestral Times. His contributions were key to exact sciences.
His posthumous work, “Elements” –of comparable diffusion to The Bible– is an example of the axiomatic-deductive
system par excellence. These postulates which led to Space Age, helped to determine Kepler´s orbital ellipses, and
set the development of Astrophysics.
Statements about the Five Regular Polyhedrons can be extrapolated to the Five Elements´ Theory in Traditional Chinese Medicine, recognizing a common origin. Analysis of the Tri-dimensional Solids provides unprecedented support to this
ancient Oriental Medicine parameters from Geometry – the oldest formal science ever known – justifying its diagnosis
and therapeutic accuracy beyond its symbolical metaphorical language.
The author presents a concrete evidence of actual application to the Torsadogenic Index and his K.1 Yong quan Resuscitation Maneuver.
Hong Kong Baptist University, China
Title: Research and development of chinese medicines
Zhi-Ling Yu obtained a Bachelor degree of Pharmacy in Chinese Medicine from Henan College of Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou, China and a PhD degree in Biochemistry from Hong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong. Currently He is studying anticancer, antiinflammation and antifatty liver Chinese herbs using molecular biology approaches in Hong Kong Baptist University as an associate professor.
Since the research and development of new chemical drugs remain time-consuming, capital-intensive and risky, much effort has been put in the search for alternative routes for drug discovery in China. In this communication, various approaches to the research and drug discovery in Chinese medicines (Zhong-Yao), including 1) reform of dosage forms, 2) reform of traditional formulae, 3) bioactive fractions extracted from Chinese medicinal herbs, 4) bioactive compounds isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs, 5) optimization of lead compounds isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs, 6) identification of new compound(s) generated from herb-herb interaction during decoction process of multi-component herbal formulae, 7) identification of herbal metabolites following the administration of a multi-component herbal formula into a living organism, 8) combination of Chinese medicinal herbs and Western drug(s), and 9) covalent linkage of Chinese medicinal herbal compound with chemical drug will be presented. Zhong-Yao has evolved over the millennia, with a battery of herbal materials to preserve health, to treat and prevent illnesses. Therefore, it is believed that if researches on Zhong-Yao-derived drug are conducted using contemporary methodologies and biomarkers, they will produce great impact on the mainstream biomedical science and likely bring about an era of modern medicine.
Integrative Medical Center, China
Title: Establishment of Dao-Di index and its applications in the quality control and rational usage of TCM
Prof. Xiao has been engaging in translational medicine of TCM. He has presided over 20 items of state key foundations, such as National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars, State “863” Project and “973” Project etc. He carried out research and development of 5 new drugs. Besides, he was awarded two items of the second prize of National Science and Technology Progress.More than 300 academic papers were published in domestic or abroad. Under his guidance, more than 80 postgraduate students got their doctoral or master degrees.
There exists numerous indices for quality evaluation and control in Chinese medicinal materials.However, most of these indices are qualitative and non-interrelated each other, as well as having little relationship with safety and efficiency. In this article, we first establish a comprehensive evaluating index--Dao-Di Index (DDI) based on five factors: relative history of producing areas, ecological suitability of producing areas, commercial specification and grade, golden rate of main components, and biopotency/toxic potency. This DDI can be used to guarantee the quality of Chinese medicinal materials more comprehensively, objectively and effectively, promoting the integration of “species-quality-property-effect-usage”, and it will provide significant references and revelation for taking a world leading role of quality control standard for tranditional medicines.
Keywords: Chinese medicinal materials; Dao-Di Index(DDI; quality evaluation & control; rational usage of TCM; integration of species-quality-property-effect-usage of TCM
National Central University, Taiwan
Title: Ephedra apricot kernel gypsum & licorice decoction (ma xing gan shi tang) and honeysuckle & forsythia powder (yin qiao san) are among the repertoire of traditional chinese medicine (tcm) formulas for the treatment of the common cold.
Aim of the study:
A pharmaco-epidemiological study of the use of TCM prescriptions for the common cold helps identify the predominant TCM ingredients and ingredient pairs in the prescription. The identification also determines the associated TCM syndromes. Association with weather conditions is useful for the prediction of seasonal use of particular TCM common cold formulas.
Materials and Methods:
Over four million TCM prescriptions, made throughout a year, for the common cold and cough were obtained from the National Health Insurance Reimbursement Database (Taiwan). Ingredient (i.e. single herb or multi-herb formula) combinations in the prescriptions were enumerated to identify the predominant combinations. Monthly densities of combinations per prescription were correlated with climate data to identify the climate factors and seasons that predict the formula use.
Ingredient combinations were presented in the form of networks. The resulting co-ingredient network of the common cold revealed two hubs: Ma Xing Gan Shi Tang and Yin Qiao San. Correlation studies indicated that the use of Ma Xing Gan Shi Tang was associated with low temperature and low humidity and that Yin Qiao San use was associated with high temperature and rainy days.
Prescription of Ma Xing Gan Shi Tang for the common cold prevailed in Taiwan throughout the year and especially between winter and early spring. On the other hand, Yin Qiao San use increased in warm and rainy seasons in Taiwan, when the acute febrile illness spread.
Peking University, China
Title: Effect of Shenyuan on inflammatory and rheological factors in a porcine model of acute myocardial infarction
Wenyi Liang is a physician graduated from Chongqing Medical University in China. Currently, working for a PhD degree at the Core-Laboratory of Peking University First Hospital. Therapy of tradition Chinese medicine on heart diseases is one of my major research interests.
Background and Aim: The precious herb American Ginseng and traditional Chinese herb Corydalis yanhusuo have been in use in clinical practice for many years on account of their salutary effects on the cardiovascular system. Shenyuan is a new compound medicine extracted from the mixture of American Ginseng and Corydalis yanhusuo.Our previous study has found that Shenyuan exerted anti-oxidation and anti-apoptotic effect in both rodent and porcine myocardial infarction (MI) models. In this study we aim to extend investigation into inflammatory mechanism and hemodynamics alterations.
Materials and Methods: Pigs were divided randomly into five groups: (1) Group S, sham operated; (2) Group C, MI models control; (3) Group L, MI + low-dose Shenyuan (240 mg/kg•d); (4) Group M, MI + moderate-dose Shenyuan (320 mg/kg•d); (5) Group H, MI + high-dose Shenyuan (400 mg/kg•d). MI was induced by the left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. Shenyuantreatment started one week before MI and continued for another two weeks after MI.The experiment was carried out at five time points, i.e. pre-MI, and post-MI 6 hours, post-MI 2days, post-MI 7days and post-MI 14 days.
Results: An imbalance of pro/anti-Inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood existed in MI model pigs. High dose of Shenyuan attenuated the increase of plasma IL-17f and IL-6 and rescued the attenuation of plasma IL-10 (p<0.05). Besides, medium and high doses of Shenyuan increased Treg cells accumulation into myocardium in the infarcted zone of left ventricular and only high doses of Shenyuan increased Treg cells accumulation in the non-infarcted zone (p<0.05). MI model pigs also had higher hemodynamicsparaments than sham, whereas all doses of Shenyuaneffectively reduced whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity and platelet aggregation rate (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Shenyuan elicited a significant cardioprotective effect by markedly ameliorating the inflammatory changes and hemorheological abnormalities after MI onset, and high dose of Shenyuan was more potent in porcine models.
Keywords: Myocardial infarction; Shenyuan; Inflammation; Hemodynamics; Regulatory T cells
Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, China
Title: New tools and methods help revive ancient traditional chinese medicine
Xijun Wang has completed his Ph.D. at the age of 35 years from Japan Hokkaido College of Pharmacy (1997). He is a vice president at the Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, China. He has published 120 articles in peer-reviewed international journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of repute. His researches focus on Serum pharmacochemistry of TCM, Metabolomics, and Chinmedomics. He won the second prize of 2002 National Science and Technology Progress Award; ‘Chinmedomics study of Chinese medicine formulae’ won the first prize of Science and Technology of 2012 China Society of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been playing a very important role in health protection and disease control for thousands of years. The key problem in the TCM research is how to use new tools help revive ancient TCM. Fortunately, the rapid development of new technology platforms provides a methodological basis for deep understanding the essence of TCM. Presently, its widespread use would significantly advance the field of TCM by bridging the gap between Chinese and Western medicine. One example is a famous TCM herbal formulae Yinchenhao Tang, recorded in “Shanghanlun” that is a classic resource on TCM written by Zhongjing Zhang (150-215 A.D.). However, its precise mechanism and drug candidates remain very complex and poorly understood. 45 compounds in YCHT and 21 compounds in vivo were identified by the established UPLC-MS fingerprinting method. Chinmedomics was incorporated to analyzing the pharmacological effects of YCHT, and found 32 marker metabolites in vivo. By correlation analysis of these compounds and marker metabolites, three components (D, G, R) were found as drug candidates. At the levels of the proteome and metabolome, the underlying molecular mechanisms were explored, and found that DGR activated an array of factors that are involved in energy, amino acid, nucleotide, fatty acid, cofactor and vitamin metabolism. DGR targets not only immunity and metabolism but also targets key regulatory pathways, thereby helping to restore the normal function. It may provide a promising design derived from TCM. Warranted or not, enthusiasm for the new techniques and methods is irrepressible for millennia-old TCM.
National Taiwan University, Taiwan
Title: Quantifying treatment effects of gua-sha on female upper trapezius active myofascial trigger points with sonoelastographic measurement
Hui-Chun Huang is a physical therapist and a master student who studies in the school and graduate institute of physical therapy, National Taiwan University in Taiwan. Her research interest lies in tradition Chinesemedicine, Gua-Sha and orthopedic physical therapy.
Novel approach in traditional Chinese medicine: Myofascial pain syndrome is characterized as myofascial trigger points (MTrP) in taut bands. Previous literature showed that MTrPsarehypoechoeic areasidentified by sonoelastography and active MTrPshad larger area than normal and latent MTrPs.However, no studies to date use MTrPs' cross-sectional areas as an objective outcome measure to assess treatment effect and there is no studies discussing the effects of Gua-Shaon trigger points. This study aimed toquantify the treatment effects of Gua-Shaon female upper trapezius active MTrPswithsonoelastographicmeasurement. Three office female workers (37.3 ± 3.0 y/o)with active trigger points on their upper trapezius,who had neck pain for the past 3 months were recruited. Gua-sha intervention was applied to the more painful side for under 5 minutes. Outcome measures include:MTrPs’ cross-sectional area measurements through sonoelastography,neck disability index (NDI) and visual analogue scale (VAS)atimmediately after treatment, two days and one week follow up were evaluated. Results showed a reduction incross-sectional area from baseline (24.38 ± 5.08 mm2) to immediately (15.67 ± 1.80 mm2), two days (17.03 ± 5.26 mm2) and one week after treatment (22.92 ± 4.75 mm2). Positive treatment effects were alsoobserved forboth NDI (54%) and VAS (100%). Preliminary findings showed that sonoelastographicmeasurement is feasiblein quantifying treatment effects and Gua-Sha is an effective treatment on female upper trapezius active MTrPs with objective and subjective measures.
Tarek Ali Ibrahim
Alexandria University, Egypt
Title: Effect of health sports on the functional efficiency of hypothalamus and medulla oblongata: An experimental study using qigong Tai ji exercises for old people
Tarek Ali Ibrahim Rabie has completed his Ph.D at the age of 28 years from Alexandria University and postdoctoral studies from Shanghai University of sport. He is the A instructor in Faculty of Physical Education for Girls - Alexandria University, Board member of the Centre for Sustainable Development at the Faculty of Physical Education for Girls - Alexandria University. I have supervised many of the scientific research in the field of acupuncture, massage and Qigong. I Participated in International Trainig workshop for Wushu 2008 in Shanghai University.
The aim of the research
This research aims at recognizing the effect of Qiqong Taiji exercises on the functional efficiency of hypothalamus and medulla oblongata for old people. However we have to refer to the following:-
1. Stating the most important biochemical variables referring to the functional efficiency of hypothalamus as well as physiological variables referring to the functional efficiency of medulla oblongata for old people.
2. Setting a proposed program of Chinese QiqongTaiji exercises which suits the nature of the sample.
3. Recognizing the effect of the suggested program of QiqongTaiji exercises on the variables mentioned in the research through a comparison between the preceding and succeeding measurements.
The sample of the research:
It was randomly chosen from Smoha Club in Alexandria. The sample consisted of 20 persons.
1. There are significant differences in favor of the succeeding measurement in some biochemical variables (CATH – Cortisol) except (TSH – T4) with the research sample (men–women).
2. There are significant differences in favor of the succeeding measurements in some physiological variables (MV – MVV – RH – RHR - VO2 max) exception (FVC – Bb – FEV1) with the research sample (men – women).
3. There are significant differences in favor of the succeeding measurement in some physiological variables (MV at rest – MVV – RH – FEV1 - RHR - VO2 max) exception (FVC – Bb – MV at work) with the research sample (men – women).
4. The health sports (Qigong Taiji) have a positive effect on functional efficiency of hypothalamus and medulla oblongata for old people (men- women). There is an improvement in these variables with various degrees.
Research and Development in Traditional Medicine
Northwest A & F University, China
Title: Systems-based drug screening from natural products: Combination of ADME/T, systems biology, omics and systems pharmacology
Yonghua Wang is a full professor major in Systems Pharmacology at Northwest A &F University, China and is a visiting professor at Politecnico di Torino, Italy. Prof. Wang has devoted his research to systems pharmacology, particularly developing methods to understand mechanisms of action for herbs and plant-origin drug discovery by systems biology methods. He is the author or coauthor of 84 scientific papers, book chapters and 17 abstracts. He has applied for 9 patents for new drugs and 3 of them have been authorized. He serves as the Associate Editor for the international journal microRNA and a memember of the editorial board of Journal of Bioequivalence & Bioavailability.
Natural products are known to be essential in maintaining and improving human health for thousands of years. The strategy to discover new drugs from natural products has proved to be very successful. However, due to the complexity of chemical components and mechanisms of action, a search and understanding of therapeutic molecules from natural products based on the traditional method is extremely difficult. Recently, the confluence of spectacular advances in ADME/T prediction, systems biology and systems pharmacology has led to the development of numerous novel potential drugs and therapeutic agents for a wide spectrum of diseases. Therefore, this review is aimed to highlight the progress how to integrate in silico ADME/T, pharmacokinetics, systems pharmacology, omics and systems biology for the discovery of natural products. The invaluable roles that natural products have played, and continue to play, in the drug discovery process and its future perspectives are emphasized.
Southern Tohoku General Hospital, Japan
Title: Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder using the traditional japanese herbal medicine Saikokeishikankyoto: A randomized, observer-blinded controlled trial in survivors of the great east Japan earthquake and tsunami
Koh Iwasaki has completed his Ph.D at the age of 30 years from Tohoku University and postdoctoral studies from Division of Geriatrics in Tohoku University and Division of Geriatrics in University of Tokyo. He is the director of Center for Traditional Asian Medicine and Home Healthcare, Southern TOHOKU General Hospital. He has published 34 papers in reputed journals (impact factor 101) and serving as an editorial board member of Kampo Medicine (Journal of Traditional Japanese Medicine).
Objective: The Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami caused immense damage over a wide area of eastern Japan and left 20,000 people either dead or missing. Destruction of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant has prevented over 10,000 people from returning to their hometown.Hence, many survivors are at high risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This randomized, observer-blinded, controlled trial examined the efficacy and safety of the traditional Japanese herbal formula saikokeishikankyoto (SKK) on PTSD in survivors of this disaster.
Methods: Forty-three participants with an Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) score over 25 were randomized into the SKK treatment (n=21) and control (n=22) groups. Change in IES-R scores between baseline and after 2 weeks of treatment was the primary endpoint. Adverse events were monitored by blood and physical examination.
Results: The total IES-R score improved significantly in the SKK group (49.6 ± 11.9 vs. 25.5 ± 17.0). The avoidance (p=0.025) and intrusion (p<0.001) subscale scores also improved. Significant intergroup differences were observed for answers to the following items: “Any reminder brought back feelings about it.” (Q1, p=0.031); “Other things kept making me think about it.” (Q3, p=0.003); “I found myself acting or feeling like I was back at that time.” (Q14, p=0.02); “I had dreams about it.” (Q20, p=0.001); and “I felt watchful and on-guard.” (Q21, p=0.002).
Conclusion: SKK significantly improved IES-R scores after 2 weeks of treatment. This traditional medicine may be a treatment choice for psychological and physical symptoms in PTSD patients.
Key words: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), disaster, traditional Asian medicine Kampo medicine Saikokeishikankyoto (Chaihu-Guizhi-Ganjiang-Tang in Chinese).
Kensese S. Mossanda
Walter Sisulu University, South Africa
Title: Importance of the integration of african traditional medicine into the existing health care system
Background: It has been estimated that in Africa, there is one traditional health practitioner for every 200-400 people, whereas the availability of trained medical personnel is typically one per 20,000 people (2). In the light of this statistical data and because of the alarming increased rate of HIV/AIDS epidemic, and other diseases in Africa, there is an urgent need for more research into the efficacy and safety of the herbal medicines being used by the majority of the population, and how they can be improved and further developed. This study would like to investigate another approach for an integration of traditional medicine into health system using the support of those community-based organizations.
Methods: A large number of African plants including Rooi bos tea (RT, Aspalathus linearis), Bambara groundnut (BB, Vignea subterranean), Ligusha (LI, Corchorys tridens), Calabash (CA, Lagenaria siceraria), Cancer bush (CB, Sutherlandia fructescens), Devil’s claw (Harpagophytum procumbens), Isibaha (ISI, Warburgia salutaris), and Lumba (LU, Polygonum multiflorum) have been selected for their traditional use and efficacy to treat various diseases including HIV/AIDS, Cancer and inflammatory diseases.Various methods including chemical and biological analysis, have been used to evaluate successively their antioxidant, antimutagenic, chemopreventive, anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities.
Results: Our data have demonstrated that RT, BB, CA, CB, ISI and DEV used possess antimutagenic, antioxidant and chemopreventive activities. ISI and DEV show the most potent antioxidative activities among the tested plants, and CB and DEV, displayed substantial chemopreventive/anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting TPA-induced COX-2 expression in mouse skin through the reduction of catalytic activity of ERK. Both extracts inhibited TPA induced expression of c-Fos and DNA-binding of AP-1. Antimetastatic activity of DEV has been demonstrated in its suppressive effects on MMP-7 protein (Matrix Metallo-proteinase- 7) in HT-29 cells.
Conclusion: Understanding the mechanism underlying activity of Traditional preparations, will lead to a better management of patients. Having the general ethical approval from WHO, this new approach constitutes an alternative to a time consuming and expensive classical clinical trial required by international norms. By assessing those traditional practices and trying to validate them, we could reach more patients in rural areas as 80% of those populations seek medical care first from traditional practitioners. Therefore, particular attention should now be given to those palliative treatments utilized by those who are working with the communities.
Nanyang Medical University, China
Title: Effects of Wutou (Aconitum carmichaeli) and Banxia (Pinellia ternat) aqueous extract on wound healing in rats
Xichao Xia has completed his Ph.D at the age of 30 years from Henan Normal University. He has published 6 papers in SCI journals as well as 17 papers in Chinese reputed journals, appointed as a reviewer for three international journals, and performed three patents. His research interest include molecular basis of Traditional Chinese Medicine.
Wutou, a traditional Chinese medicinethe (TCM) from the axial root of Aconitum carmichaeli, is traditionally used to treat colds, polyarthralgia, diarrhea, heart failure, beriberi, and edema. Banxia, the rootstock of Pinellia ternate, has a therapeutic effect on treatment of cough, infection and inflammation. Application of Wutou and Banxia together in vivo is consider as a taboo in a classical TCM book, but the potential clinical utility of in vitro remain unknown. The purpose of current study was to investigate effects of application of Wutou and Banxia aqueous extract in the wound rats. Rats were fulfilled a surgical lesion with a 2.0 cm resecting tissue in the dorsal fascia. Following, animals were divided into 3 groups, including model group, control group treated with 1 mg/mL of Yunnan Baiyao, and Wutoubanxia group administrated 1 mg/mL of Wutou and Banxia extract. Wound contractions in day 0, 3, 7, 11 were calculated by an image analyser. The histological analysis was detected using hematoxilin and eosin. The levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) transcripts in the wound tissue were determined by real-time quantitative PCR. Compared with the control group, rats in the model group showed poor re-modeling and re-epithelization charateraterized by a significant decrease of neovascularization, epithelialization and fibroblast. Furthermore, the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-2 were significantly increased, and TGF-β1 and bFGF significantly decreased in the model group in contrasted with that in the control group. By contrast, the treatment of Wutoubanxia extract reversed the above-mentioned conditions caused by wound. The results suggest that administration of Wutou and Banxia extract has a promoting role in wound healing of rats possibly through enhancing anti-inflammatory ability and inducing fibroblast formation.
Eng Shi Ong
Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore
Title: Emerging green technologies for the chemical standardization of botanicals and herbal preparations
Eng Shi Ong has completed his Ph.D at the age of 30 years from University of Bristol, UK and postdoctoral studies from National University of Singapore. He is an academic staff from Singapore University of Technology and Design. He has published more than 40 papers and 3 invited reviews in reputed journals.
Botanicals, medicinal plants and herbal preparations are often known to contain one or multiple chemical constituents that may have therapeutic purposes.As botanical or multiple medicinal plants can be processed to become a food/health supplement, drug or cosmetics, chemical standardization of botanical is important for their quality control. The different steps for the chemical standardization of botanicals will include selection of a suitable method of extraction and analysis of compounds using separation or spectroscopic method. Traditional extraction methods may be tedious and required the use of higher volume of organic solvent. To reduce or eliminate the usage of organic solvent, emerging green extraction technologies such as supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) have been developed. The simplification of equipment for PLE and PHWE such as using lower operating pressure is covered. For the analysis of the botanical extracts obtained, analytical techniques such as liquid chromatography (LC) with columns of smaller internal diameters, ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) will propel the move towards a reduction and elimination on the usage of organic solvents. In addition, LC/MS and CE are noted to provide a solution for the analysis of target compounds in the presence of overlapping peaks in botanical extracts and herbal preparation without the need for additional sample clean-up step. Hence, the selection of the appropriate extraction technologies and analytical techniques is required to form a solvent free solution for the chemical standardization of botanicals.
University of Haripur, Pakistan
Title: Methanolic seed extracts of Peganum harmala exhibit potent activity against Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts and its encystment in vitro
Abdul Matin has completed his PhD from Birkbeck, University of London and Postdoctoral Fellowship from School of Medicine, Southampton University Hospital, South ampton, United Kingdom. Dr. Matin has long-standing research interests to explore therapeutic options to treat life threatening infections. He was honored with a specialty award and prize titled “The Best Researcher in the UK” by Medical Research Society (MRS), one of the most prestigious research societies in the country; for his outstanding contribution in human brain research in 2007 at Royal College of Physicians, London, UK. Dr. Matin is currently Associate Professor and Head of Medical Lab Technology & Public Health Departments at University of Haripur, Pakistan. He has published more than 20 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member and reviewers of reputed journals.
Acanthamoeba castellanii is an opportunistic protozoan pathogen that can cause fatal encephalitis involving the central nervous system and painful sight-threatening keratitis. Treatments for both infections are problematic because of the resistance of cysts to therapeutic agents. Here we evaluated in vitro strength of various folk plants extracts on Acanthamoeba cysts and its encystment mechanism. Our results revealed among all, methanolic seed extracts of Peganum harmala (ranging from 1 to 30 mg/ml) exhibited amoebicidal effects against Acanthamoeba cysts with complete destruction at maximum dose 30mg/ml followed by Melia azedarach, and Ricinus communis. Furthermore Acanthamoeba encystment was also inhibited with extract in concentration dependent manner with maximum inhibition at 2mg/ml after 48h co-incubation. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that methanolic seed extracts of Peganum harmala exhibited remarkable inhibition of Acanthamoeba cysts and encystment in vitro which could serve a potential new natural agent against Acanthamoeba. Our future studies will be more focus on to identify the active ingredients and elucidation of the mechanism of action of the effective compounds against these life threatening microbes like Acanthamoeba.
Devaki Amma Memorial college of Pharmacy, India
Title: Formulation, stability studies and analysis of new ayurvedic health supplement for babies
Dr. Deepa. P completed D. Pharm from John Enoch College of Pharmacy, B.Pharm from S.B. College of Pharmacy, and M.Pharm from Annamalai University Chidambaram. Completed PhD at the age of 33 years from Karpagam University, Coimbatore and she guided nearly 100 B.Pharm students and 7 P.G.students. She has published more than 15 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as assistant professor in Devaki Amma Memorial College of Pharmacy .Got best research idea award from a community called “synergians”, Kochi.
The six medicinal plants having antioxidant and antibacterial activity have been selected based on folklore use and it was incorporated in germinated cereals to form a new poly herbal formulation. The fabricated polyherbal formulation had undergone phytochemical screening. Qualitative chemical analysis method was performed. Evaluation of polyherbal formulation was conducted by means of pharmaceutical evaluation, safety evaluation and Physico chemical evaluation. In the case of safety evaluation, the acute toxicity studies were determined along with the determination of Aflatoxin and heavy metals. The acute toxicity of aqueous solution of formulation was determined in albino mice following fixed dose method of OECD guideline423; CPCSEA.For the determination of Aflatoxin, TLC method and for the heavy metals flame photometric method were performed. Physico chemical evaluation consists of total microbial count and detection of pathogens. In-Vitro antioxidant activity was also determined by DPPH method and in vivo studies were performed by inducing sodium nitrite oxidative stress in rats. Antibacterial activity was evaluated with the help of cup plate method (in-vitro) and in-vivo analysis by counting the number of bacteria (S.typhimurium) per gram of feces in mice. The major constituents like Gallic acid, Quercetin, Curcuminoids and Ascorbic acid were identified by comparing with bio-markers and it’s quantified with the help of UV. After quantification, the filling process of the formulation was performed in accordance with GMP.The formulated product was standardized with the help of TRIPLE-P protocols. Stability studies were performed in accordance with ICH guidelines. All the results showed a very good positive response.
Al-Mergheb University, Libya
Title: Preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial studies of Polygonum maritimum and Olea europaea plants extracts
Dr. Salem M. Edrah has completed his Ph.D at the age of 39 years from Faculty of Chemical Technology, Pardubice University, Czech Republic and postdoctoral studies the same university. He is Ass. Prof. at Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Almergab University, Libya.
Polygonum maritimum and Olea europaea are the useful plants used in folk medicines for the treatment of various diseases. The present study was conducted to examine preliminary phytochemicals screening of aqueous and ethanlolic leaves extracts and antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of both plants. The qualitative phytochemical studies of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the plants leaves were carried out using standard testing procedures for metabolites viz. tannins, saponins, phlobatanins, flavonoids, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides and alkaloids. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Polygonum maritimum showed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides metabolites, however, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Olea europaea exhibited the presence of tannins, saponins, phlobatanins , terpenoids and cardiac glycosides metabolites . The antibacterial activity of ethanolic leaves extract of both plants was tested using Gram positive bacterial strains (Staphylococcus epidermidis ,Staphylococcus saprophyticus) and Gram negative bacterial strains (Proteus vulgaris, Eschericia coli,Citrobactor freundii). In general, the extracts of both plants exhibited considerable activity on the bacterial species. Both plants extracts selectively inhibited the growth of both gram positive and gram negative bacteria with zones of inhibition ranging from 8 mm to 11 mm at concentrations of 50 mg/ml. Present findings suggest that Polygonum and Olive leaves extracts exhibt antibacterial effect against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria and these plants seems to be considered for detailed investigation in an attempt to find out the chemical entities combating against pathogenic microorganisms.
Keywords: Polygonum maritimum, Olea europaea, Phytochemicals screening, Antibacterial activity.
Tri Dewanti Wdyaningsih
Brawijaya University, Indonesia
Title: Hypocholesterolemic effect of black cincau (Mesona palustris bl) based on instant tea in hypercholesterolemic wistar rats
Dr. Ir. Tri Dewanti Widyaningsih, MS. is a Food Technology Graduated from Gadjah Mada University Yogyakarta Indonesia. Post Graduate Masters Public Health and has completed her Doctor from Airlangga University Surabaya Indonesia . She is Senior Lecturer and Head of Food Nutrition Laboratory in Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Brawijaya University Malang Indonesia. Having experience of 20 years of Nutrition and Functional Food Research. Published two books and twenty research papers in different National and International Journals.
Background: Increased cholesterol concentrations and low plasma HDL concentrations are hypercholesterolemia. This disease will cause atherosclerosis and finally leads to the coronary heart disease. . Diet modification is one of recommended theraphy to decrease cholesterol level by increasing fiber and antioxidant intake from herb. Black cincau or black grass jelly is identified as containing fiber and antioxidant compounds, the compounds of cinnamon and pandanus are also useful as antioxidant in black cincau based of instant tea. The aim of this study was to prove the effect of black cincau based of instant tea of different dosages on cholesterol and HDL of hypercholesterolemic rats.
Methods: This research was true-experimental using pre-post test with control group design. Subjects were male Wistar rats, 7-8 weeks old, 150-200 grams weight, inducted hypercholesterolemia. Then, it devided into 5 groups of the treatment, which is the normal control, positive control (without treatment), given black cincau extract, and black cincau based on instan tea 0,126g/200g and 0,252g/200g weight of rat dosage for 4 weeks.
Result: The treatment of black cincau based on instant tea for 28 days counted to 0.126g/200g BW/day in hypercholesterolemic rat had reduced cholesterol 50.01 %, and also increased HLD to 36.47 %.
Conclusion: The best hypocholesterolemic effect found in black cincau based on instant tea.
Keywords: Hypercholesteromic, black cincau based on instant tea. , antioxidant
Ankita N. Patel
Title: Antihyperlipidemic activity of methanolic extract of Garcinia indica fruit rinds in poloxamer-407 induced hyperlipidemic mice
Ankita N. Patel has completed her Graduation and Post Graduation from Pune University. Currently she is working as an R & D Executive at Apogee Healthcare Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai. Still now she has published 6 research papers in reputed international journals and attended many seminar and conferences. Her area of interest consists of standardization of Traditional medicinal formulations and Cosmetics, Isolation and characterization of phytochemicals, Pharmacogonostical and Pharmacological screening of herbs.
Hyperlipidaemia is a clinical and metabolic disorder characterized by abnormal elevation in the major circulatory lipid and lipoprotein levels accounting for approximately 56% cases of cardiovascular diseases worldwide and causes about 4.4 million deaths annually. There are variety of plant are available in traditional medicines, which are ethno-medically claimed to be anti-hyperlipidaemic but still scientifically not proven. With this aim the selected plant i.e. Garciniaindica has added interest because it joins two basic cardiovascular disease (CVD) control factors: food and medication. The usefulness of such type of untapped foodie plant could be developed for patients having CVD in order to improve their lifestyle and control their disease. With this kind of menu, patients having CVD could potentially avoid the use of the synthetic antihyperlipidaemic or Cardioprotective agents. Hence the Methanolic extracts of fruit rinds of Garciniaindica were evaluated for anti-hyperlipidemic activity in poloxamer 407 induced hyperlipidemic mice. The administration of the Methanolic extract of fruit rinds (400 mg/kg p.o.)in Poloxamer-407 induced Hyperlipidemic Mice create a significant (p<0.05) reduction in elevated serumtotal cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low density lipoprotein (LDL)levels and significant maintenance of high densitylipoprotein (HDL) level, the study also confirm by histopathological observations.
Keywords: Garcinia indica, Antihyperlipidemic activity, Poloxamer 407, Methanolic extracts
Maria Teresa Salles Trevisan
Federal University of Ceara, Brazil
Title: Anacardic acid : From improvement of food composition to functional foods
Maria Teresa Salles Trevisan graduated from Sao Carlos Federal University in Brazil in 1986, obtained her Master Science in 1989. She worked as a Visiting Scientist in Alagoas Federal University from 1989 to 1992. Her PhD was in Plant Biotechnology, obtained in 1997 at Leiden University, The Netherland. She began to work as a lecturer at Ceará Federal University in 1998, where she conducted research and supervising students from the post-graduation course in Organic Chemistry, from 2002 to 2003 postdoctoral studies at German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) in Heidelberg. Recently she was promoted to Associate Professor IV at the Ceará Federal University. She has published more than 35 papers in reputed journals.
Anacardium occidentale Linn. (cashew) a member of the family Anacardiaceae is a tropical tree indigenous to Brazil, which is now extensively cultivated in India and east Africa. India is the largest producer of cashew nut, accounting for almost 50% of world exports. Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) is an important agricultural by-product of cashew nut production. The potential annual availability of this material, which accounts for about 32% of the shell, is enormous. In our work we show antioxidant and gastroprotective activity, xanthine oxidase and angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibition. Supplementation with anacardic acids has a protective role against oxidative and inflammatory mechanisms in the lungs of mice exposed to diesel exhaust. Inclusion of anacardic acid in yellow eggs is important and could bring to the market a new kind of functional food. The effect of anacardic acid on carotenoid stability of spray dried shows a carotenoid increasing in 25% in relation no added antioxidant for spray dried yolks being also effective in retarding the lipid oxidation.
Keywords: anacardic acids, by product, functional food, eggs
Elham Mohamed Osman Ahmed
Veterinary Research Institute, Sudan
Title: Acaricidal activity of crude extract of Annona squamosa against Hyalomma anatolicum (Ixodoidea: Ixodidae)
Ilham osman has completed her Ph.D at the age of 45 years from Sudan Academy of Sciences (SAS) Khartoum, Sudan. She is senior researcher in Veterinary Research Institute (VRI), Animal Resources Research Corporation (ARRC), Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and Rangelands, Khartoum, Sudan. She has published more than 15 papers in reputed journals.
The acaricidal activities of crude ethanolic extract from the leaves of Annona squamosa (annonaceae) was assessed against larvae and engorged female adults Hyalomma anatolicum using larval and adult immersion test (LIT) and(AIT), respectively. In the LIT, six concentrations of the crude extract (15, 7.5, 3.75, 1.875, 9.275 and 4.6375 %) with three replicates for each were used. The same concentrations with 6 replicates were used for AIT. The obtained results indicated that the crude ethanolic extract of A. squamosa at all concentrations used, is toxic to H. anatolicum larvae and adults. In the LIT mortality rate was observed to vary from 14.983 to 100%, 48 h after treatment. The mortality increased with increase concentration. LC50 and LC99 were 1.366 % and 10.170 %, respectively. On the other hand the effectiveness of AIT treatment against engorged females was assessed by measuring mortality, inhibition of egg production, hatchability and inhibition of reproduction (growth inhibition). AIT showed 100% mortality at the concentration of 15% , egg laying inhibition of 60.365, 62.282, 81.224, 94.117% and hatching inhibition of 28.4194, 80.69516, 88.89439 and 95.40229%, at the concentration of 0.46875, 0.9375, 1.875and 3.75%, respectively. Our results showed that crude ethanolic extract of A. squamosa is a promising botanical acaricide and growth inhibitor factor against H. anatolicum.
Keywords: Annonasquamosa, botanical acaricide, growth inhibitor, ethanolic extract, Hyalomma anatolicum Immersion test.
Rezapour Firouzi Soheila
Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran
Title: Regulation of lipid-dependent membrane enzymes by hot nature diet with co-supplemented hemp seed, evening primrose oils intervention in multiple sclerosis patients
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most chronic and inflammatory disorder that result in physical disability. Because of limited efficacy and adverse side effects, identifying novel therapeutic and protective agents is important. This study was aimed to assess regulation of surface-membrane enzymes by hemp seed and evening primrose oils as well as Hot nature dietary intervention in Relapsing Remitting MS (RRMS) patients.
Methods and materials: In this double blind, randomized trial, 100 RRMS patients with EDSS<6 were allocated into 3 groups: “Group A” who received co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils with advising Hot nature diet, “Group B” who received olive oil as placebo, “Group C” who received the co-supplemented oils. Clinically EDSS and functional score as well as biochemical parameters (blood cells PUFA, FADS2, Serum sPLA2) were assessed at baseline and after 6 months.
Results: Mean follow-up was 180±2.9SD days (N=65, 23 M and 42 F aged 34.25±8.07 years with disease duration 6.80±4.33 years). There was no significant difference in studies parameters at baseline. After 6 months, significant improvements in EDSS and functional score were found in the group A and C while EDSS and pyramidal score showed significant increase in group B. Biochemical parameters showed improvement in the A and C groups whereas there was worsening condition for the group B after the intervention.
Conclusion: the co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils with Hot nature diet can have beneficial effects in improving clinical symptoms and signs in RRMS patients which were confirmed by regulation of surface-membrane enzymes.
Key Words: Relapsing Remitting Multiple sclerosis, Hot nature diet, Evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L), Hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L), PUFA, Delta-6-desaturase (FADS2), Phospholipase A2.
University of Dschang, Cameroon
Title: Evaluation of ovicidal and larvicidal activities of methylene chloride-methanol extract of Annona senegalensis (Annonaceae) stem bark on Heligmosomoides bakeri (Nematoda, Heligmosomatidae)
Wabo Pone Josue has completed his Ph.D at the age of 40 years from University of Yaoundé 1, Cameroon. He is the member of staff of the Department of Animal Biology, University of Dschang, recently has been copted as an expert of International agency of atomic energy (IAEA) for a mission in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) on medicinal plant as anthelmintic. He has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals and has expertise many articles. I supervise 5 PhD students and more than 10 Masters Students.
Infections of animals with gastrointestinal nematodes constitute a world wide health problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness in vitro anthelmintic of Methylene Chloride/Methanol (1:1 volume mixture) extract of Annona senegalensis (Annonaceae) the barks of the stem on Heligmosomoides bakeri eggs and larvae (for ovicidal and larvicidal activities, respectively). Annona senegalensis is included in the list of the plants that have anthelminthic activity in the traditional medicine, just as with other plants like Albizia anthelmintica (Mimosaceae), Canthium mannii (Rubiaceae), Nauclea latifolia (Rubiaceae) and Carica papaya (Caricaceae). The plant material was collected from the peripheral savanas of Foumban, Noun Division, West Region of Cameroon. The final concentrations of plant extract tested were: 5 000, 3 750, 2 500, 1 250 and 625 μg/mL; 4 % Tween 80 aqueous solution was used as negative control. Ovicidal and larvicidal activities were assessed thru egg embryonation and hatching rates and thru mortality rate of L1 and L2 larvae, respectively. The extract produced low but dependant concentration on egg embryonation and hatching rates. With the highest extract concentration (5 000 μg/mL) embryonnation and hatching rates of 20.8 % and 16.1 % were obtained respectively. On the contrary, a strong larvicidal activity was observed. L1 mortality rates of 100 % and 96.7 % were recorded respectively, in the two most concentrated extract (5 000 and 3 750 μg/mL) just after six hours of exposition. L2 larvae appeared more resistant as the two most concentrated extracts (5 000 and 3 750 μg/mL) produced larvicidal mortality rates of 96.1 % and 90.0 % respectively, just twenty four hours after the administration of the treatment. These results suggest that the extracts of A. Senegalensis bark stem used, possess high larvicidal properties. Further more in vivo, studies assess the effects on adult worms and toxicity on mice hosts are still needed.
Atallah F. Ahmed
King Saud University, Saudi Arabia
Title: Evidence based medicinal value of an organic extract of red onion peels
A.F.Ahmed earned his PhD at Okayama University, Okayama, Japan (1993) and pursued his postdoctoral studies at Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (2001-2006).He spent most of his career at Mansoura University, Egypt before getting hired as a professor of Pharmacognosy and Natural Product Chemistry to join King Saud University, Saudi Arabia at 2010.He has published more than 50 papers, in the field of herbal and marine natural products and evidence-based herbal medicine, in reputed journals. He has been serving as a reviewer for research projects funded byKing Abdulaziz University and King Abdulaziz City for science and technology.
As part of our research devoted to the utilization of agro and food industrial wastes as a source of medicines and phytopharmaceuticals, recoveryand bioactivity evaluation of aphenolic-rich hydro-acetone extract from red onion (Allium cepa L.) peels (ACPE) will be reported. The NMR analyses of the isolated compounds identifiedknown flavonoids and phenolic acids in ACPE. Total phenol content and antioxidant capacity, estimatedby Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH radical assays,were found to be 72.33±5.30 mg gallic acid equivalent (mg GAE)/g andIC50 13.8 g/mL (ref. rutin: 5.2 g/mL), respectively. On the basis of high phenolic and antioxidant capacity of ACPE, the evaluation of hepatorenal protective activity was thus carried out using CCl4–induced toxicity model in rats. Results of measurements of various serum and hepatorenal biochemical markers demonstrated that ACPEpossessa considerable protective potential against CCl4-induced liver and kidney injury at 100 mg/kg/rat. In another study, ACPE showed a concentration-dependent relaxation in isolated rabbit jejunum preparations of spontaneous and high K+-induced contractions equipotentially, nearly similar to that caused by papaverine; and suppressed the carbachol-induced bronchoconstriction in normotensive anesthetized rats similar to the effect observed with aminophylline. Theresults indicated that the spasmolytic and bronchodilatory effects ofACPEare partially mediated through inhibition of calcium channel andphosphodiesterase enzyme like-mechanisms.
The above findings represented an evidence-based medicinal value to red onion peel, as a cheap dietary supplement where it may enhance the recovery from xenobiotics-induced toxicity initiated by free radicals and gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders, e.g. diarrhea and asthma.
High School of Food Industries, Tunisia
Title: Study on bioactive compounds in some Tunisian medicinal and aromatic plants
Nabiha Bouzouita is professor in High School of Food Industries in Tunisia; she has obtained in 2003 Thesis of Doctorate at Faculty of Sciences of Tunisia,
She has completed postdoctoral studies from Walloon Center of Industrial Biology in
Liege Belgium. Its field of competence is Natural products (Aromatic and Medicinal Plants).
She is director of the Laboratory of valorization of natural substances of plant origin in High School of Food Industries, and she is overseeing several PhD. She has published more than 20 papers in reputed journals.
The essential oils, isolated by hydrodistillation, from the aerial parts of Thymus capitatus, Ocimum basilicum, Myrtus communis, Laurus nobilis, Lavandula stoechas, Ruta graveoleus, Junipreus phoenicea, Mentha pulegium, Citrus bergamia risso, Cyperus rotendus, and three varieties of Eucalyptus camaludulensis, rudis and lehmanii, were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest oil yield was obtained from Citrus bergamia risso (9.7%), while the lowest one was obtained from Ocimum basilicum (0.2%). Monoterpenes hydrocarbons were dominant in Myrtus communis, Junipreus phoenicea, Citrus bergamia risso oils (68.3, 63.93 and 66.37%, respectively), the other essential oil were dominated by oxygen-containing monoterpenes, from 59.39% to 92.40%. The essential oils investigated, exhibited good antioxidant activities when tested by DPPH free radical-scavenging ability and bleaching β-carotene in linoleic acid system. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the essential oils, against different microorganisms: Escherchia coli, Pseudomonos aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus A, Candida albicans and Geotrichum candidum, was assessed by submerged culture method and measurement of determination of minimum inhibitory concentration. The isolated essential oils have potential for development as natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agent.
Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) inhibitory activity of Tunisian Salicornia herbacea L., and Cyperus rotundus methanol extracts studied for the first time was evaluated against three CYP isozymes namely CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. The two extracts were a potent inhibitor against CYP2D6 respectively with (IC50 = 3.88 ± 0.02 µg /mL) and (EC50=11.13± 0.04µg/mL).
Martin Steven Myer
College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, South Africa
Title: Antifungal and antibacterial activity and chemical composition of polar and non-polar extracts of Athrixia phylicoides determined using bio autography and HPLC
Background: Athrixia phylicoides DC. (Asteraceae) is used medicinally in South Africa to treat a plethora of ailments, including heart problems, diabetes, diarrhoea, sores and infected wounds. It is also prepared in the form of a tea (hot decoction) taken as a refreshing, pleasant-tasting beverage with commercialization potential.
Methods: Extracts of the dried ground aerial parts were prepared using organic solvents (diethyl ether,dichloromethane/methanol, ethyl acetate and ethanol) and water. These extracts were subjected to HPLC, TLC and bioautography analysis with the aim of linking a range of peaks visualized in HPLC chromatography profiles to antibacterial and antifungal activity of the same extracts.
Results: HPLC revealed a group of compounds extracted by more than one solvent. Compounds identified include inositol, caffeic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, apigenin, hymenoxin and oleanolic acid. The organic extracts displayed similar TLC profiles, and bioautography indicated approximately five antibacterial compounds, but only two antifungal compounds in these extracts. Bioautography indicated that cold water extracted the least antimicrobial compounds.
Conclusions: Several previously unknown compounds were identified in Athrixia phylicoides extracts, and bioautography indicated a number of antibacterial and antifungal compounds. There were notable differences in chemical composition and bioactivity between the organic and aqueous extracts. Further research is necessary to fully characterize the active components of the extracts.
Keywords: Antibacterial, Antifungal, Asteraceae, Athrixia phylicoides, Bioautography, HPLC, Zulu tea