Medical University of Graz, Austria
Head of the Research Unit for Complementary and Integrative Laser Medicine, of the Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, and of the TCM Research Center Graz at the Medical University of Graz, Doctor of technical and Doctor of medical sciences, international lectures, about 600 scientific publications (180 SCI/pubmed listed), author and/or editor of eleven books, currently editor-in-chief and/or member of the editorial board of more than 30 international scientific journals (e.g. Editor-in-chief of the Internet Journal of Alternative Medicine (IJAM), Associate Editor for Medical Acupuncture, Associate Editor of the Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies (JAMS), editor, lead guest editor and guest editor of Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM), Associate Editor of BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Editor-in-Chief of Medicines and of Integrative Medicine International). Prof. Litscher is University Professor at the Medical University of Graz, and Visiting Professor at seven renowned institutions and universities in Asia. In addition, he is Initiator and Chairman of the Annual World Congress of High-Tech Acupuncture and Integrative Medicine which will take place for the second time in China in May 2015. He is also President of ISLA transcontinental (International Society for Medical Laser Applications.
All over the world, basic research on high-tech acupuncture and integrative laser medicine has been very successfully performed over the last decades, using a broad spectrum of innovative biomedical engineering methods. One of the main present and future goals is to combine basic research on high-tech acupuncture with necessary further experimental and clinical pilot studies for the first time. Acupuncture has been used for medical treatment for thousands of years. Using electro-acupuncture, needle or laser needle stimulation and modern biomedical techniques, it was possible for the first time to quantify changes in biological activities caused by acupuncture. This lecture focuses on the latest innovative aspects that underline the further enhancement and development of high-tech acupuncture. Special emphasis is given to new acupuncture innovations, e.g. teleacupuncture, laser acupuncture, and laser therapy in animal experimental and human clinical studies. Recent investigations concerning bioengineering assessment and modernization of acupuncture based on innovative technology are presented.
Health Studies Collegium, USA
Russell Jaffe received his BS, MD and Ph.D from the Boston University School of Medicine in 1972 and residency in clinical chemistry at the National Institutes of Health (1973 – 1976). He is board certified in Clinical and Chemical Pathology and has considerable expertise in Traditional Chinese Medicine, acupuncture, active meditation, homeopathy, and manipulative arts. He started the Health Studies Collegium, a think tank that focuses on sustainable solutions to global health needs and is the Lab Director of ELISA/ACT Biotechnologies that offers the only lymphocyte response assay for detecting delayed hypersensitivities and is CEO of PERQUEIntegrative Health, a company that offers the world premier nutraceuticals and scientifically proven, integrative health solutions speeding the transition from sick care to healthful caring. \\\\r\\\\n
Treatment outcomes based on symptoms suppressed are more costly and less effective than those based on promoting the causes of good health and avoiding the consequences of ill health. Beginning with the fundamentals the focus of this presentation will be around 8 validated functional predictive biomarker tests. The emphasis on these tests brings out the importance attached to physiology (fundamentalto traditional healing) incharting out the course of a healthy life now and in the future; pillars of a personalized, evidence based practice today.\\\\r\\\\n Modern laboratory medicine relies on usual values rather than goal values using reference ranges based on statistics, in turn based on only 50-100 specimens. On the other hand “least risk, most gain” goal values for each test can be directly translated into quality years of life “conserved” or “at risk”.
\\\\r\\\\nThis is the next big step in interpretive lab medicine and includes the following tests:\\\\r\\\\nHgbA1c, hsCRP, homocysteine, LRA by ELISA/ACT, Omegar 3 index, 8 oxoguanine and 1st morning urine pH.\\\\r\\\\n
Dr. Ning-Sun Yang is a Distinguished Research Fellow and (Distinguished) Professor of Academia Sinica and the associated universities in Taipei, Taiwan. Dr. Yang received his Ph.D. in biochemical genetics at MSU, USA. His major research interests include gene-based cancer vaccines, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer phytochemicals, and functional genomics studies of dendritic cells. He initiated and helped the development of gene gun technology and pioneered its application to plant genetic engineering, mammalian gene transfer, DNA vaccines and gene therapy approaches. After thirty years of a research career in USA, Dr. Yang went back to Taiwan and established the Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center in Academia Sinica, Taipei, which is now recognized for medicinal and crop plant research. He was elected as a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS, USA). He has published close to 140 research papers, and obtained 14 USA patents.\\r\\n
Recent studies showed that a spectrum of innate immune responses, various immune cell types and their cross-talks, and the associated inflammatory activities are involved with many different types of diseases. These findings strongly suggest that, by modulating specific immune cell responses or appropriately suppressing defined inflammatory activities of targeted diseases, we may design new approaches for therapy or treatment of certain inflammatory and chronic diseases, e.g., colitis, dermatitis, IBD and some cancers. Interesting, it’s well known and appreciated that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), especially some commonly used medicinal herbs, claimed with functional specificity (e, g., anti-dermatitis promote tissue-wound healing), and routinely used historically for hundreds to thousands of years, have been established for their “strong anti-inflammatory” activities toward specific organ targets.\\r\\nWith the observations and understandings, my laboratory has investigated a group of phytoextracts or the derived pure phytochemicals from specific TCM plants, and evaluated their bioactivities/effects, in vitro and in vivo, on dendritic cells, MDSCs, Tregs and other immune cell types in mouse models of skin inflammation, colitis and tumor metastasis systems. Experimentally, we employed functional genomics, proteomics, transgenic promoter analysis, cytokine/chemokine profiling, micro RNA array and signaling pathway analysis systems in cross-examination studies. Results and findings, published in eight key papers during the past five years will be discussed and projected for future research directions. \\r\\nThe key lesson we learned from these studies and studies: Highly specific cellular, molecular and signaling pathway effect on mouse and human dendritic cells, tumor stromal cells, skin tissue cells can be obtained by specific phytochemicals from TCM, contributing to potent inflammatory-modulatory activities in test animals of disease models.\\r\\n
Traditional Chinese Medicine
Research and Development in Traditional Medicine
Adrian Angel Inchauspe, medical doctor graduated from Medical Sciences , National University of La Plata in 1986, is current surgery professor of quoted School of Medicine. He worked as surgeon for “Dr. Rodolfo Rossi” Hospital in LaPLata and “Dr. Ignacio Pirovano” Hospital in Buenos Aires. Currently he assists as member of the Investigation Department in “Dr. Alejandro Korn “Hospital , La Plata. Scholarship in Germany after his surgical residency in 1991, was certified in laproscopic surgery in Aachen and Tubingen Universities. Graduate in Tele surgery Louis Pasteur University - Strasbourg - was chosen for the Argentina National Invention Award in 1998. Since 2005, Dr. Inchaus preserves as a teacher in the Argentina Acupuncture Society; and as session chairman of several International Drug Discovery Science and Technology Congress .Editorial member and reviewer of renowned journals, he has been searching about Yong quan resuscitation since 27 years.
Euclid was one of the greatest mathematicians of Ancestral Times. His contributions were key to exact sciences.
His posthumous work, “Elements” –of comparable diffusion to The Bible– is an example of the axiomatic-deductive
system par excellence. These postulates which led to Space Age, helped to determine Kepler´s orbital ellipses, and
set the development of Astrophysics.
Statements about the Five Regular Polyhedrons can be extrapolated to the Five Elements´ Theory in Traditional Chinese Medicine, recognizing a common origin. Analysis of the Tri-dimensional Solids provides unprecedented support to this
ancient Oriental Medicine parameters from Geometry – the oldest formal science ever known – justifying its diagnosis
and therapeutic accuracy beyond its symbolical metaphorical language.
The author presents a concrete evidence of actual application to the Torsadogenic Index and his K.1 Yong quan Resuscitation Maneuver.
Southern Tohoku General Hospital, Japan
Koh Iwasaki has completed his Ph.D at the age of 30 years from Tohoku University and postdoctoral studies from Division of Geriatrics in Tohoku University and Division of Geriatrics in University of Tokyo. He is the director of Center for Traditional Asian Medicine and Home Healthcare, Southern TOHOKU General Hospital. He has published 34 papers in reputed journals (impact factor 101) and serving as an editorial board member of Kampo Medicine (Journal of Traditional Japanese Medicine).
Objective: The Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami caused immense damage over a wide area of eastern Japan and left 20,000 people either dead or missing. Destruction of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant has prevented over 10,000 people from returning to their hometown.Hence, many survivors are at high risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This randomized, observer-blinded, controlled trial examined the efficacy and safety of the traditional Japanese herbal formula saikokeishikankyoto (SKK) on PTSD in survivors of this disaster.
Methods: Forty-three participants with an Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) score over 25 were randomized into the SKK treatment (n=21) and control (n=22) groups. Change in IES-R scores between baseline and after 2 weeks of treatment was the primary endpoint. Adverse events were monitored by blood and physical examination.
Results: The total IES-R score improved significantly in the SKK group (49.6 ± 11.9 vs. 25.5 ± 17.0). The avoidance (p=0.025) and intrusion (p<0.001) subscale scores also improved. Significant intergroup differences were observed for answers to the following items: “Any reminder brought back feelings about it.” (Q1, p=0.031); “Other things kept making me think about it.” (Q3, p=0.003); “I found myself acting or feeling like I was back at that time.” (Q14, p=0.02); “I had dreams about it.” (Q20, p=0.001); and “I felt watchful and on-guard.” (Q21, p=0.002).
Conclusion: SKK significantly improved IES-R scores after 2 weeks of treatment. This traditional medicine may be a treatment choice for psychological and physical symptoms in PTSD patients.
Key words: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), disaster, traditional Asian medicine Kampo medicine Saikokeishikankyoto (Chaihu-Guizhi-Ganjiang-Tang in Chinese).
Hong Kong Baptist University, China
Zhi-Ling Yu obtained a Bachelor degree of Pharmacy in Chinese Medicine from Henan College of Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou, China and a PhD degree in Biochemistry from Hong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong. Currently He is studying anticancer, antiinflammation and antifatty liver Chinese herbs using molecular biology approaches in Hong Kong Baptist University as an associate professor.
Since the research and development of new chemical drugs remain time-consuming, capital-intensive and risky, much effort has been put in the search for alternative routes for drug discovery in China. In this communication, various approaches to the research and drug discovery in Chinese medicines (Zhong-Yao), including 1) reform of dosage forms, 2) reform of traditional formulae, 3) bioactive fractions extracted from Chinese medicinal herbs, 4) bioactive compounds isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs, 5) optimization of lead compounds isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs, 6) identification of new compound(s) generated from herb-herb interaction during decoction process of multi-component herbal formulae, 7) identification of herbal metabolites following the administration of a multi-component herbal formula into a living organism, 8) combination of Chinese medicinal herbs and Western drug(s), and 9) covalent linkage of Chinese medicinal herbal compound with chemical drug will be presented. Zhong-Yao has evolved over the millennia, with a battery of herbal materials to preserve health, to treat and prevent illnesses. Therefore, it is believed that if researches on Zhong-Yao-derived drug are conducted using contemporary methodologies and biomarkers, they will produce great impact on the mainstream biomedical science and likely bring about an era of modern medicine.
Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore
Eng Shi Ong has completed his Ph.D at the age of 30 years from University of Bristol, UK and postdoctoral studies from National University of Singapore. He is an academic staff from Singapore University of Technology and Design. He has published more than 40 papers and 3 invited reviews in reputed journals.
Botanicals, medicinal plants and herbal preparations are often known to contain one or multiple chemical constituents that may have therapeutic purposes.As botanical or multiple medicinal plants can be processed to become a food/health supplement, drug or cosmetics, chemical standardization of botanical is important for their quality control. The different steps for the chemical standardization of botanicals will include selection of a suitable method of extraction and analysis of compounds using separation or spectroscopic method. Traditional extraction methods may be tedious and required the use of higher volume of organic solvent. To reduce or eliminate the usage of organic solvent, emerging green extraction technologies such as supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) have been developed. The simplification of equipment for PLE and PHWE such as using lower operating pressure is covered. For the analysis of the botanical extracts obtained, analytical techniques such as liquid chromatography (LC) with columns of smaller internal diameters, ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) will propel the move towards a reduction and elimination on the usage of organic solvents. In addition, LC/MS and CE are noted to provide a solution for the analysis of target compounds in the presence of overlapping peaks in botanical extracts and herbal preparation without the need for additional sample clean-up step. Hence, the selection of the appropriate extraction technologies and analytical techniques is required to form a solvent free solution for the chemical standardization of botanicals.
Alexandria University, Egypt
Tarek Ali Ibrahim Rabie has completed his Ph.D at the age of 28 years from Alexandria University and postdoctoral studies from Shanghai University of sport. He is the A instructor in Faculty of Physical Education for Girls - Alexandria University, Board member of the Centre for Sustainable Development at the Faculty of Physical Education for Girls - Alexandria University. I have supervised many of the scientific research in the field of acupuncture, massage and Qigong. I Participated in International Trainig workshop for Wushu 2008 in Shanghai University.
The aim of the research
This research aims at recognizing the effect of Qiqong Taiji exercises on the functional efficiency of hypothalamus and medulla oblongata for old people. However we have to refer to the following:-
1. Stating the most important biochemical variables referring to the functional efficiency of hypothalamus as well as physiological variables referring to the functional efficiency of medulla oblongata for old people.
2. Setting a proposed program of Chinese QiqongTaiji exercises which suits the nature of the sample.
3. Recognizing the effect of the suggested program of QiqongTaiji exercises on the variables mentioned in the research through a comparison between the preceding and succeeding measurements.
The sample of the research:
It was randomly chosen from Smoha Club in Alexandria. The sample consisted of 20 persons.
1. There are significant differences in favor of the succeeding measurement in some biochemical variables (CATH – Cortisol) except (TSH – T4) with the research sample (men–women).
2. There are significant differences in favor of the succeeding measurements in some physiological variables (MV – MVV – RH – RHR - VO2 max) exception (FVC – Bb – FEV1) with the research sample (men – women).
3. There are significant differences in favor of the succeeding measurement in some physiological variables (MV at rest – MVV – RH – FEV1 - RHR - VO2 max) exception (FVC – Bb – MV at work) with the research sample (men – women).
4. The health sports (Qigong Taiji) have a positive effect on functional efficiency of hypothalamus and medulla oblongata for old people (men- women). There is an improvement in these variables with various degrees.
Veterinary Research Institute, Sudan
Ilham osman has completed her Ph.D at the age of 45 years from Sudan Academy of Sciences (SAS) Khartoum, Sudan. She is senior researcher in Veterinary Research Institute (VRI), Animal Resources Research Corporation (ARRC), Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and Rangelands, Khartoum, Sudan. She has published more than 15 papers in reputed journals.
The acaricidal activities of crude ethanolic extract from the leaves of Annona squamosa (annonaceae) was assessed against larvae and engorged female adults Hyalomma anatolicum using larval and adult immersion test (LIT) and(AIT), respectively. In the LIT, six concentrations of the crude extract (15, 7.5, 3.75, 1.875, 9.275 and 4.6375 %) with three replicates for each were used. The same concentrations with 6 replicates were used for AIT. The obtained results indicated that the crude ethanolic extract of A. squamosa at all concentrations used, is toxic to H. anatolicum larvae and adults. In the LIT mortality rate was observed to vary from 14.983 to 100%, 48 h after treatment. The mortality increased with increase concentration. LC50 and LC99 were 1.366 % and 10.170 %, respectively. On the other hand the effectiveness of AIT treatment against engorged females was assessed by measuring mortality, inhibition of egg production, hatchability and inhibition of reproduction (growth inhibition). AIT showed 100% mortality at the concentration of 15% , egg laying inhibition of 60.365, 62.282, 81.224, 94.117% and hatching inhibition of 28.4194, 80.69516, 88.89439 and 95.40229%, at the concentration of 0.46875, 0.9375, 1.875and 3.75%, respectively. Our results showed that crude ethanolic extract of A. squamosa is a promising botanical acaricide and growth inhibitor factor against H. anatolicum.
Keywords: Annonasquamosa, botanical acaricide, growth inhibitor, ethanolic extract, Hyalomma anatolicum Immersion test.
King Saud University, Saudi Arabia
A.F.Ahmed earned his PhD at Okayama University, Okayama, Japan (1993) and pursued his postdoctoral studies at Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (2001-2006).He spent most of his career at Mansoura University, Egypt before getting hired as a professor of Pharmacognosy and Natural Product Chemistry to join King Saud University, Saudi Arabia at 2010.He has published more than 50 papers, in the field of herbal and marine natural products and evidence-based herbal medicine, in reputed journals. He has been serving as a reviewer for research projects funded byKing Abdulaziz University and King Abdulaziz City for science and technology.
As part of our research devoted to the utilization of agro and food industrial wastes as a source of medicines and phytopharmaceuticals, recoveryand bioactivity evaluation of aphenolic-rich hydro-acetone extract from red onion (Allium cepa L.) peels (ACPE) will be reported. The NMR analyses of the isolated compounds identifiedknown flavonoids and phenolic acids in ACPE. Total phenol content and antioxidant capacity, estimatedby Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH radical assays,were found to be 72.33±5.30 mg gallic acid equivalent (mg GAE)/g andIC50 13.8 g/mL (ref. rutin: 5.2 g/mL), respectively. On the basis of high phenolic and antioxidant capacity of ACPE, the evaluation of hepatorenal protective activity was thus carried out using CCl4–induced toxicity model in rats. Results of measurements of various serum and hepatorenal biochemical markers demonstrated that ACPEpossessa considerable protective potential against CCl4-induced liver and kidney injury at 100 mg/kg/rat. In another study, ACPE showed a concentration-dependent relaxation in isolated rabbit jejunum preparations of spontaneous and high K+-induced contractions equipotentially, nearly similar to that caused by papaverine; and suppressed the carbachol-induced bronchoconstriction in normotensive anesthetized rats similar to the effect observed with aminophylline. Theresults indicated that the spasmolytic and bronchodilatory effects ofACPEare partially mediated through inhibition of calcium channel andphosphodiesterase enzyme like-mechanisms.
The above findings represented an evidence-based medicinal value to red onion peel, as a cheap dietary supplement where it may enhance the recovery from xenobiotics-induced toxicity initiated by free radicals and gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders, e.g. diarrhea and asthma.
Wenyi Liang is a physician graduated from Chongqing Medical University in China. Currently, working for a PhD degree at the Core-Laboratory of Peking University First Hospital. Therapy of tradition Chinese medicine on heart diseases is one of my major research interests.
Background and Aim: The precious herb American Ginseng and traditional Chinese herb Corydalis yanhusuo have been in use in clinical practice for many years on account of their salutary effects on the cardiovascular system. Shenyuan is a new compound medicine extracted from the mixture of American Ginseng and Corydalis yanhusuo.Our previous study has found that Shenyuan exerted anti-oxidation and anti-apoptotic effect in both rodent and porcine myocardial infarction (MI) models. In this study we aim to extend investigation into inflammatory mechanism and hemodynamics alterations.
Materials and Methods: Pigs were divided randomly into five groups: (1) Group S, sham operated; (2) Group C, MI models control; (3) Group L, MI + low-dose Shenyuan (240 mg/kg•d); (4) Group M, MI + moderate-dose Shenyuan (320 mg/kg•d); (5) Group H, MI + high-dose Shenyuan (400 mg/kg•d). MI was induced by the left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. Shenyuantreatment started one week before MI and continued for another two weeks after MI.The experiment was carried out at five time points, i.e. pre-MI, and post-MI 6 hours, post-MI 2days, post-MI 7days and post-MI 14 days.
Results: An imbalance of pro/anti-Inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood existed in MI model pigs. High dose of Shenyuan attenuated the increase of plasma IL-17f and IL-6 and rescued the attenuation of plasma IL-10 (p<0.05). Besides, medium and high doses of Shenyuan increased Treg cells accumulation into myocardium in the infarcted zone of left ventricular and only high doses of Shenyuan increased Treg cells accumulation in the non-infarcted zone (p<0.05). MI model pigs also had higher hemodynamicsparaments than sham, whereas all doses of Shenyuaneffectively reduced whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity and platelet aggregation rate (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Shenyuan elicited a significant cardioprotective effect by markedly ameliorating the inflammatory changes and hemorheological abnormalities after MI onset, and high dose of Shenyuan was more potent in porcine models.
Keywords: Myocardial infarction; Shenyuan; Inflammation; Hemodynamics; Regulatory T cells
National Taiwan University, Taiwan
Hui-Chun Huang is a physical therapist and a master student who studies in the school and graduate institute of physical therapy, National Taiwan University in Taiwan. Her research interest lies in tradition Chinesemedicine, Gua-Sha and orthopedic physical therapy.
Novel approach in traditional Chinese medicine: Myofascial pain syndrome is characterized as myofascial trigger points (MTrP) in taut bands. Previous literature showed that MTrPsarehypoechoeic areasidentified by sonoelastography and active MTrPshad larger area than normal and latent MTrPs.However, no studies to date use MTrPs' cross-sectional areas as an objective outcome measure to assess treatment effect and there is no studies discussing the effects of Gua-Shaon trigger points. This study aimed toquantify the treatment effects of Gua-Shaon female upper trapezius active MTrPswithsonoelastographicmeasurement. Three office female workers (37.3 ± 3.0 y/o)with active trigger points on their upper trapezius,who had neck pain for the past 3 months were recruited. Gua-sha intervention was applied to the more painful side for under 5 minutes. Outcome measures include:MTrPs’ cross-sectional area measurements through sonoelastography,neck disability index (NDI) and visual analogue scale (VAS)atimmediately after treatment, two days and one week follow up were evaluated. Results showed a reduction incross-sectional area from baseline (24.38 ± 5.08 mm2) to immediately (15.67 ± 1.80 mm2), two days (17.03 ± 5.26 mm2) and one week after treatment (22.92 ± 4.75 mm2). Positive treatment effects were alsoobserved forboth NDI (54%) and VAS (100%). Preliminary findings showed that sonoelastographicmeasurement is feasiblein quantifying treatment effects and Gua-Sha is an effective treatment on female upper trapezius active MTrPs with objective and subjective measures.
Brawijaya University, Indonesia
Dr. Ir. Tri Dewanti Widyaningsih, MS. is a Food Technology Graduated from Gadjah Mada University Yogyakarta Indonesia. Post Graduate Masters Public Health and has completed her Doctor from Airlangga University Surabaya Indonesia . She is Senior Lecturer and Head of Food Nutrition Laboratory in Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Brawijaya University Malang Indonesia. Having experience of 20 years of Nutrition and Functional Food Research. Published two books and twenty research papers in different National and International Journals.
Background: Increased cholesterol concentrations and low plasma HDL concentrations are hypercholesterolemia. This disease will cause atherosclerosis and finally leads to the coronary heart disease. . Diet modification is one of recommended theraphy to decrease cholesterol level by increasing fiber and antioxidant intake from herb. Black cincau or black grass jelly is identified as containing fiber and antioxidant compounds, the compounds of cinnamon and pandanus are also useful as antioxidant in black cincau based of instant tea. The aim of this study was to prove the effect of black cincau based of instant tea of different dosages on cholesterol and HDL of hypercholesterolemic rats.
Methods: This research was true-experimental using pre-post test with control group design. Subjects were male Wistar rats, 7-8 weeks old, 150-200 grams weight, inducted hypercholesterolemia. Then, it devided into 5 groups of the treatment, which is the normal control, positive control (without treatment), given black cincau extract, and black cincau based on instan tea 0,126g/200g and 0,252g/200g weight of rat dosage for 4 weeks.
Result: The treatment of black cincau based on instant tea for 28 days counted to 0.126g/200g BW/day in hypercholesterolemic rat had reduced cholesterol 50.01 %, and also increased HLD to 36.47 %.
Conclusion: The best hypocholesterolemic effect found in black cincau based on instant tea.
Keywords: Hypercholesteromic, black cincau based on instant tea. , antioxidant